Basic Organic Nomenclature
Basic IUPAC Organic Nomenclature
nomenclature uses the longest continuous chain of carbon
atoms to determine the basic root name of the compound.
The root name is then modified due to the presence of different functional groups which replace
hydrogen or carbon atoms in the parent sturcture.
are a number of different ways to modify the root name to indicate the functional
: (most common) : the highest priority functional group modifies
the suffix of the root name, while all other
groups, or substituents, are added as prefixes to the root name.
- Functional group : names the compound
based on the highest priority functional group, i.e.
as an alcohol, ketone, alkyl halide, etc.
- Replacement : used to indicate
when an atom, usually carbon, is replaced by another atom.
: used to combine named subunits (i.e.
or trivial : due to widespread use, some compunds
with simple names have been adopted into basic IUPAC nomenclature.
|These pages focus primarily
on the substitutive and functional group
nomenclature but also include examples of all systems in cases where the
name is generated by a combination of methods.
- that organic molecules
can in general be either chains (also known as acyclic) or cyclic or a combination
of both. In most cases this doesn't make a difference. The general rules
for cyclic systems will be developed for cycloalkanes and can be applied to
- molecules are not restricted
to a single functional group, they can have several functional groups. A common
example are amino acids which have both an amine and a carboxylic acid present.
However, the most important feature of nomenclature
is that given a complete name,
a single unique structure can be drawn