Return to Contents  Chapter 17: Aldehydes and Ketones. Nucleophilic Addition to C=O  Ch 17 contents

Formation of Hydrates

equilibrium with water giving hydrates
Reaction type:  Nucleophilic Addition

Summary

Related Reactions
MECHANISM FOR THE ACID CATALYSED FORMATION OF HYDRATES
Step 1:
An acid/base reaction. Since there is only a weak nucleophile we need to activate the carbonyl by protonating on O.
acid catalysed formation of a hydrate
Step 2:
The nucleophilic O in the water attacks the electrophilic C in the C=O, breaking the π bond and giving the electrons to the positive O
Step 3:
An acid/base reaction. Deprotonation of the oxonium ion neutralises the charge giving the hydrate.
 
 

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© Dr. Ian Hunt, Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary