Return to Contents  Chapter 17: Aldehydes and Ketones. Nucleophilic Addition to C=O  Ch 17 contents

Overview of Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones

The following list is an overview of the reactions of aldehydes, RCHO, and ketones, RCOR', ordered by nucleophile, that are presented in the following pages.
 

Reaction with "H":  
Reduction to Hydrocarbons reduction to hydrocarbons
H- : Hydride Reductions to Alcohols hydride reduction to alcohols
 
Reaction with C nucleophiles:
-CN : Formation of Cyanohydrins cyanohydrin formation
RM : Reaction with Organometallics reaction with RLi and RMgX to give alcohols
P ylide : Wittig Reaction alkene synthesis via the Wittig reaction
 
Reaction with N nucleophiles:
RNH2 : Primary amines and derivatives primary amines give imines
R2NH : Secondary amines secondary amines give enamines
 
Reaction with O nucleophiles:
H2O : Formation of Hydrates equilibrium with water giving hydrates
ROH : Formation of acetals / ketals
 
 
 

 

reaction with alcohols gives acetals and ketals
 
Oxidation Reactions
Oxidation of Aldehydes aldehydes are readily oxidised to carboxylic acids
Baeyer-Villager reaction Baeyer-Villager oxidation to an ester

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© Dr. Ian Hunt, Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary